Here’s a great exploration of Bayes’ Theorem and how to use it in real world problems.
Bayes’ theorem is a way to figure out conditional probability. Conditional probability is the probability of an event happening, given that it has some relationship to one or more other events. For example, your probability of getting a parking space is connected to the time of day you park, where you park, and what conventions are going on at any time. Bayes’ theorem is slightly more nuanced. In a nutshell, it gives you the actual probability of an event given information about tests.