Lex Fridman talks about the most impactful computer science paper in history.

Discussion of the 1950 paper by Alan Turing that proposed what is now called the Turing Test. This is one of the most impactful papers in the history of AI and the first paper in the AI paper club on our Discord.

Join here: https://discord.gg/lex-ai   

Time index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 1:02 – Paper opening lines
  • 3:11 – Paper overview
  • 7:39 – Loebner Prize
  • 11:36 – Eugene Goostman
  • 13:43 – Google’s Meena
  • 17:17 – Objections to the Turing Test
  • 17:29 – Objection 1: Religious
  • 18:07 – Objection 2: “Heads in the Sand”
  • 19:18 – Objection 3: Godel Incompleteness Theorem
  • 19:51 – Objection 4: Consciousness
  • 20:54 – Objection 5: Machines will never do X
  • 21:47 – Objection 6: Ada Lovelace
  • 23:22 – Objection 7: Brain in analog
  • 23:49 – Objection 8: Determinism
  • 24:55 – Objection 9: Mind-reading
  • 26:34 – Chinese Room thought experiment
  • 27:21 – Coffee break
  • 31:42 – Turing Test extensions and alternatives
  • 36:54 – Winograd Schema Challenge
  • 38:55 – Alexa Prize
  • 41:17 – Hutter Prize
  • 43:18 – Francois Chollet’s Abstraction and Reasoning Challenge (ARC)
  • 49:32 – Takeaways
  • 56:51 – Discord community
  • 57:56 – AI Paper Reading Club

Lex Fridman interviews Dmitry Korkin on the latest episode of his podcast.

Dmitry Korkin is a professor of bioinformatics and computational biology at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, where he specializes in bioinformatics of complex disease, computational genomics, systems biology, and biomedical data analytics. I came across Dmitry’s work when in February his group used the viral genome of the COVID-19 to reconstruct the 3D structure of its major viral proteins and their interactions with human proteins, in effect creating a structural genomics map of the coronavirus and making this data open and available to researchers everywhere. We talked about the biology of COVID-19, SARS, and viruses in general, and how computational methods can help us understand their structure and function in order to develop antiviral drugs and vaccines. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast. 

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 2:33 – Viruses are terrifying and fascinating
  • 6:02 – How hard is it to engineer a virus?
  • 10:48 – What makes a virus contagious?
  • 29:52 – Figuring out the function of a protein
  • 53:27 – Functional regions of viral proteins
  • 1:19:09 – Biology of a coronavirus treatment
  • 1:34:46 – Is a virus alive?
  • 1:37:05 – Epidemiological modeling
  • 1:55:27 – Russia
  • 2:02:31 – Science bobbleheads
  • 2:06:31 – Meaning of life

Lex Fridman interviews Stephen Wolfram: computer scientist, mathematician, and theoretical physicist who is the founder and CEO of Wolfram Research, a company behind Mathematica, Wolfram Alpha, Wolfram Language, and the new Wolfram Physics project.

He is the author of several books including A New Kind of Science, which on a personal note was one of the most influential books in my journey in computer science and artificial intelligence. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 4:16 – Communicating with an alien intelligence
  • 12:11 – Monolith in 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • 29:06 – What is computation?
  • 44:54 – Physics emerging from computation
  • 1:14:10 – Simulation
  • 1:19:23 – Fundamental theory of physics
  • 1:28:01 – Richard Feynman
  • 1:39:57 – Role of ego in science
  • 1:47:21 – Cellular automata
  • 2:15:08 – Wolfram language
  • 2:55:14 – What is intelligence?
  • 2:57:47 – Consciousness
  • 3:02:36 – Mortality
  • 3:05:47 – Meaning of life

Lex Fridman interviews Eric Weinstein in the latest episode of his podcast.

Eric Weinstein is a mathematician with a bold and piercing intelligence, unafraid to explore the biggest questions in the universe and shine a light on the darkest corners of our society. He is the host of The Portal podcast, a part of which, he recently released his 2013 Oxford lecture on his theory of Geometric Unity that is at the center of his lifelong efforts in arriving at a theory of everything that unifies the fundamental laws of physics. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 2:08 – World War II and the Coronavirus Pandemic
  • 14:03 – New leaders
  • 31:18 – Hope for our time
  • 34:23 – WHO
  • 44:19 – Geometric unity
  • 1:38:55 – We need to get off this planet
  • 1:40:47 – Elon Musk
  • 1:46:58 – Take Back MIT
  • 2:15:31 – The time at Harvard
  • 2:37:01 – The Portal
  • 2:42:58 – Legacy

Lex Fridman interviews the one and only Richard Dawkins.

Richard Dawkins is an evolutionary biologist, and author of The Selfish Gene, The Blind Watchmaker, The God Delusion, The Magic of Reality, The Greatest Show on Earth, and his latest Outgrowing God. He is the originator and popularizer of a lot of fascinating ideas in evolutionary biology and science in general, including funny enough the introduction of the word meme in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which in the context of a gene-centered view of evolution is an exceptionally powerful idea. He is outspoken, bold, and often fearless in his defense of science and reason, and in this way, is one of the most influential thinkers of our time. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 2:31 – Intelligent life in the universe
  • 5:03 – Engineering intelligence (are there shortcuts?)
  • 7:06 – Is the evolutionary process efficient?
  • 10:39 – Human brain and AGI
  • 15:31 – Memes
  • 26:37 – Does society need religion?
  • 33:10 – Conspiracy theories
  • 39:10 – Where do morals come from in humans?
  • 46:10 – AI began with the ancient wish to forge the gods
  • 49:18 – Simulation
  • 56:58 – Books that influenced you
  • 1:02:53 – Meaning of life

Lex Fridman interviews David Silver for the Artificial Intelligence podcast..

David Silver leads the reinforcement learning research group at DeepMind and was lead researcher on AlphaGo, AlphaZero and co-lead on AlphaStar, and MuZero and lot of important work in reinforcement learning.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 4:09 – First program
  • 11:11 – AlphaGo
  • 21:42 – Rule of the game of Go
  • 25:37 – Reinforcement learning: personal journey
  • 30:15 – What is reinforcement learning?
  • 43:51 – AlphaGo (continued)
  • 53:40 – Supervised learning and self play in AlphaGo
  • 1:06:12 – Lee Sedol retirement from Go play
  • 1:08:57 – Garry Kasparov
  • 1:14:10 – Alpha Zero and self play
  • 1:31:29 – Creativity in AlphaZero
  • 1:35:21 – AlphaZero applications
  • 1:37:59 – Reward functions
  • 1:40:51 – Meaning of life

Lex Fridman delivers a talk with some advice about life and my own journey and passion in artificial intelligence.

The audience is a group of Drexel engineering students, friends and family in Philadelphia, delivered before the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Overview – The Voice poem
  • 6:46 – Artificial intelligence
  • 13:44 – Open problems in AI
  • 14:10 – Problem 1: Learning to understand
  • 17:15 – Problem 2: Learning to act
  • 19:28 – Problem 3: Reasoning
  • 20:44 – Problem 4: Connection between humans & AI systems
  • 23:57 – Advice about life as an optimization problem
  • 24:10 – Advice 1: Listen to your inner voice – ignore the gradient
  • 25:12 – Advice 2: carve your own path
  • 26:28 – Advice 2: Measure passion not progress
  • 28:10 – Advice 4: work hard
  • 29:05 – Advice 5: forever oscillate between gratitude and dissatisfaction
  • 31:10 – Q&A: Meaning of life
  • 33:11 – Q&A: Simulation hypothesis
  • 36:15 – Q&A: How do you define greatness?

Lex Fridman interviews Roger Penrose, a physicist, mathematician, and philosopher at University of Oxford.

He has made fundamental contributions in many disciplines from the mathematical physics of general relativity and cosmology to the limitations of a computational view of consciousness. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 3:51 – 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • 9:43 – Consciousness and computation
  • 23:45 – What does it mean to “understand”
  • 31:37 – What’s missing in quantum mechanics?
  • 40:09 – Whatever consciousness is, it’s not a computation
  • 44:13 – Source of consciousness in the human brain
  • 1:02:57 – Infinite cycles of big bangs
  • 1:22:05 – Most beautiful idea in mathematics

Lex Fridman interviews William MacAskill, a philosopher, ethicist, and one of the originators of the effective altruism movement.

His research focuses on the fundamentals of effective altruism – the use of evidence and reason to help others by as much as possible with our time and money, with a particular concentration on how to act given moral uncertainty. He is the author of Doing Good Better – Effective Altruism and a Radical New Way to Make a Difference. He is a co-founder and the President of the Centre for Effective Altruism (CEA) that encourages people to commit to donate at least 10% of their income to the most effective charities. He co-founded 80,000 Hours, a non-profit that provides research and advice on how you can best make a difference through your career. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 2:39 – Utopia – the Long Reflection
  • 10:25 – Advertisement model
  • 15:56 – Effective altruism
  • 38:28 – Criticism
  • 49:02 – Biggest problems in the world
  • 53:40 – Suffering
  • 1:01:40 – Animal welfare
  • 1:09:23 – Existential risks
  • 1:19:08 – Existential risk from AGI

Lex Fridman interviews Nick Bostrom.

Nick Bostrom is a philosopher at University of Oxford and the director of the Future of Humanity Institute. He has worked on fascinating and important ideas in existential risks, simulation hypothesis, human enhancement ethics, and the risks of superintelligent AI systems, including in his book Superintelligence. I can see talking to Nick multiple times on this podcast, many hours each time, but we have to start somewhere. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast.

Time Index:

  • 0:00 – Introduction
  • 2:48 – Simulation hypothesis and simulation argument
  • 12:17 – Technologically mature civilizations
  • 15:30 – Case 1: if something kills all possible civilizations
  • 19:08 – Case 2: if we lose interest in creating simulations
  • 22:03 – Consciousness
  • 26:27 – Immersive worlds
  • 28:50 – Experience machine
  • 41:10 – Intelligence and consciousness
  • 48:58 – Weighing probabilities of the simulation argument
  • 1:01:43 – Elaborating on Joe Rogan conversation
  • 1:05:53 – Doomsday argument and anthropic reasoning
  • 1:23:02 – Elon Musk
  • 1:25:26 – What’s outside the simulation?
  • 1:29:52 – Superintelligence
  • 1:47:27 – AGI utopia
  • 1:52:41 – Meaning of life