Siraj Raval has a video exploring a paper about genomics and creating reliable machine learning systems.

Deep learning classifiers make the ladies (and gentlemen) swoon, but they often classify novel data that’s not in the training set incorrectly with high confidence. This has serious real world consequences! In Medicine, this could mean misdiagnosing a patient. In autonomous vehicles, this could mean ignoring a stop sign. Machines are increasingly tasked with making life or death decisions like that, so it’s important that we figure out how to correct this problem! I found a new, relatively obscure yet extremely fascinating paper out of Google Research that tackles this problem head on. In this episode, I’ll explain the work of these researchers, we’ll write some code, do some math, do some visualizations, and by the end I’ll freestyle rap about AI and genomics. I had a lot of fun making this, so I hope you enjoy it!

Likelihood Ratios for Out-of-Distribution Detection paper: 

The researcher’s code:

Siraj Raval gets back to inspiring people to get into AI and pokes fun at himself.

Almost exactly 4 years ago I decided to dedicate my life to helping educate the world on Artificial Intelligence. There were hardly any resources designed for absolute beginners and the field was dominated by PhDs. In 2020, thanks to the extraordinary contributions of everyone in this community, all that has changed. It’s easier than ever before to enter into this field, even without an IT background. We’ve seen brave entrepreneurs figure out how to deploy this technology to save lives (medical imaging, automated diagnosis) and accelerate Science (AlphaFold). We’ve seen algorithmic advances (deepfakes) and ethical controversies (automated surveillance) that shocked the world. The AI field is now a global, cross-cultural movement that’s not limited to academics alone. And that’s something all of us should be proud of, we’re all apart of this. I’ve packed a lot into this episode! I’ll give my annual lists of the best ML language and libraries to learn this year, how to learn ML in 2020, as well as 8 predictions about where this field is headed. I had a lot of fun making this, so I hope you enjoy it!

Lex Fridman interviews Grant Sanderson is a math educator and creator of 3Blue1Brown, a popular YouTube channel that uses programmatically-animated visualizations to explain concepts in linear algebra, calculus, and other fields of mathematics.


0:00 – Introduction
1:56 – What kind of math would aliens have?
3:48 – Euler’s identity and the least favorite piece of notation
10:31 – Is math discovered or invented?
14:30 – Difference between physics and math
17:24 – Why is reality compressible into simple equations?
21:44 – Are we living in a simulation?
26:27 – Infinity and abstractions
35:48 – Most beautiful idea in mathematics
41:32 – Favorite video to create
45:04 – Video creation process
50:04 – Euler identity
51:47 – Mortality and meaning
55:16 – How do you know when a video is done?
56:18 – What is the best way to learn math for beginners?
59:17 – Happy moment

Numberphile explains a recent breakthrough in graph theory A counterexample to Hedetniemi’s conjecture – featuring Erica Klarreich.

Read Erica Klarreich’s Quanta article on this subject:

And visit her website:

Yaroslav Shitov’s breakthrough paper:

Lex Fridman interviews Gilbert Strang on Linear Algebra, Deep Learning, Teaching, and MIT OpenCourseWare.

Gilbert Strang is a professor of mathematics at MIT and perhaps one of the most famous and impactful teachers of math in the world. His MIT OpenCourseWare lectures on linear algebra have been viewed millions of times. This conversation is part of the Artificial Intelligence podcast.

Socratica explores Abstract Algebra.

What is Abstract Algebra?

Abstract Algebra is very different than the algebra most people study in high school. This math subject focuses on abstract structures with names like groups, rings, fields and modules. These structures have applications in many areas of mathematics, and are being used more and more in the sciences, too

Seeker examines a leaked paper from Google claimed that a quantum computer demonstrated “quantum supremacy.”

But what does that mean exactly?

Quantum computers’ potential and the advantages they promise over classical computers all remain largely theoretical, and hypothetically speaking, it is predicted that quantum computers will be able to solve problems that are beyond the reach of the classical computers we use today. Passing such a threshold will be considered proof of what we call “quantum supremacy.”

Siraj Raval  interviews Vinod Khosla in the latest edition of his podcast.

Vinod Khosla is an Entrepreneur, Venture Capitalist, and Philanthropist. It was an honor to have a conversation with the Silicon Valley legend that I’ve admired for many years. Vinod co-founded Sun Microsystems over 30 years ago, a company that grew to over 36,000 employees and invented so much foundational software technology like the Java programming language, NFS, and they pretty much mainstreamed the ‘idea’ of open source. After a successful exit, he’s been using his billionaire status to invest in ambitious technologists trying to improve human life. He’s got the coolest investment portfolio I’ve seen yet, and in this hour long interview we discuss everything from AI to education to startup culture. I know that my microphone volume should be higher in this one, I’ll fix that the next podcast. Enjoy!

Show Notes:

Time markers of our discussion topics below:

2:55 The Future of Education
4:36 Vinod’s Dream of an AI Tutor
5:50 Vinod Offers Siraj a Job
6:35 Choose your Teacher with DeepFakes
8:04 Mathematical Models
9:10 Books Vinod Loves
11:00 What is Learning?
14:00 The Flaws of Liberal Arts Degrees
16:10 Indian Culture
21:11 A Day in the Life of Vinod Khosla
23:50 Valuing Brutal Honesty
24:30 Distributed File Storage
30:30 Where are we Headed?
33:32 Vinod on Nick Bostrom
38:00 Vinod’s Rockstar Recruiting Ability
43:00 The Next Industries to Disrupt
49:00 Vinod Offers Siraj Funding for an AI Tutor
51:48 Virtual Reality
52:00 Contrarian Beliefs
54:00 Vinod’s Love of Learning
55:30 USA vs China

Vinod’s ‘Awesome’ Video:

Khosla Ventures Blog posts:

Books we discussed:

Scale by Geoffrey West:

Factfulness by Hans Roesling:

Mindset by Carol Dwicke:

36 Dramatic Situations by Mike Figgis:

Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari:

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari:
The Third Pillar by Raghuram R:

Zero to One by Peter Thiel: